Preimplantation Genetic Testing (PGT): Paving the Way for Successful IVF
Preimplantation genetic testing has become essential to assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures as implantation failure rates, birth abnormalities, and miscarriages rise globally. Before embryo transplantation, defective embryos are discovered using this method of prenatal genetic diagnosis.
What is preimplantation genetic testing
Preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) is a screening test that can be used to genetically examine embryos made through in vitro fertilization (IVF) before being transferred. Genetically defective embryos are among the most frequent causes of unsuccessful embryo transfers. PGT can guarantee that the embryo chosen for transfer has the correct number of chromosomes, lowering the risk of an unsuccessful IVF cycle and miscarriage. This way, you can study the fetal medicine and estimate what actions to take further.
Benefits of PGT:
While getting the PGT done has numerous advantages, the following are the most crucial. However, it should be noted that the benefits vary depending on your health history and genetic problems.
- Increased Implantation Rate: By making the embryo healthy and increasing the likelihood of a healthy and successful pregnancy, the technique assists in identifying genetic features and offers information on chromosomal makeup.
- Chances of having a healthy baby are increased: This is because PGT aids in identifying probable birth problems and chromosomal abnormalities before embryo transplantation. This aids the couple in choosing a good embryo.
- Reduces the chance of miscarriage: Many times, chromosomal or other genetic defects cause miscarriages. Knowing the problem beforehand helps to select the best embryo possible.
When is PGT carried out?
To drastically reduce the risk of having a child with a particular genetic or chromosomal problem, patients elect to undergo IVF with PGT. There are many things you need to keep in mind when you are pregnant. This test being one of them. The reason being it is massively useful in studying the conditions of the baby.
- A couple has a history of pregnancies or children with a significant genetic disease;
- If a man or woman has a significant heritable ailment, there is a 50% chance that their offspring will get the disease gene;
- A couple, frequently without any family history of the ailment, learns that they are both healthy carriers of the same recessive genetic disorder;
- When a man or woman learns they carry a chromosome alteration, it predisposes them to produce eggs or sperm with an imbalanced chromosome makeup, which raises the possibility of miscarriage or birth abnormalities in their future pregnancies.
- If PGT is what you’re after, you might never have experienced fertility issues. Or perhaps your fertility was assessed when genetic testing showed you were more likely to give birth to a kid with a genetic disorder. In any scenario, IVF fertility therapy is required to produce and test embryos before implantation.
For which diseases can PGT be performed?
If the specific gene mutation or chromosomal problem in the family has been found by genetic testing, PGT is an option for the great majority of significant genetic diseases. PGT is available for two different types of disorders in general. Both preimplantation genetic testing for structural chromosomal rearrangements (PGT-SR) and monosomic/single gene disorders (PGT-M) are available.
Monogenic or single gene conditions:
One gene’s DNA is mutated, resulting in these disorders. Both members, i.e., the couple, may be healthy carriers of a recessive disease, or one parent may have or carry a heritable genetic condition. The following are some instances of single-gene disorders that can be treated with PGT:
- Pediatric illnesses like sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, spinal muscular atrophy, and cystic fibrosis
- Metabolic conditions, including Fanconi anemia and Tay-Sachs disease
- Hereditary cancer syndromes, including Lynch syndrome and hereditary diffuse gastric cancer, and Breast/ovarian cancer propensity
- Inherited disorders of the nervous system and the muscles, including myotonic dystrophy, frontotemporal dementia, spinocerebellar ataxia, and Huntington’s disease
- X-linked diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, hemophilia, and fragile X syndrome
- Inherited cardiac conditions include long QT syndrome, hypertrophy or dilated cardiomyopathy, and various arrhythmias.
- Some patients thinking about PGT have already used DNA testing to discover the mutations in their family. Others have undergone genetic testing but know that they most likely inherit a hereditary condition from their family members.
2. Chromosome rearrangements:
These illnesses affect healthy individuals and alter the standard organization of the body’s 46 chromosomes, or DNA package, units. These genetic alterations do not involve a person’s health, but they put them at a higher risk of miscarriage and having children with birth problems. When a couple undergoes a blood chromosomal study after experiencing miscarriages, they are frequently found.
- Mutually beneficial relocations
- Translocations a la Robertsonian
- Genomic inversions
- Complex chromosomal rearrangements
How is PGT performed?
Embryos must be obtained through IVF to be used in PGT. The embryologist will help the embryos hatch once the eggs have been collected and fertilized in the lab to collect cells for testing. A few of the embryo’s outer cells are biopsied in the blastocyst stage and sent for genetic testing.
Finally, in vitro fertilization (IVF) is undergoing a revolution thanks to the development of preimplantation genetic testing (PGT), a ground-breaking technology. PGT gives infertile couples and those at risk of passing genetic illnesses fresh hope by enabling the screening and selection of embryos with desired genetic traits. PGT offers several significant advantages during the IVF process. It makes it possible to identify embryos with normal chromosomes, raising the likelihood of successful implantation and decreasing the probability of miscarriage. Additionally, PGT makes it possible to identify genetic defects, giving couples the information, they need to decide on their options for having children and preventing the passing of hereditary disorders to their offspring.
Frequently Asked Questions:
PGT comes in two primary varieties: PGT-A (formerly known as PGS) and PGT-M. PGT-M focuses on identifying genetic mutations or illnesses, whereas PGT-A examines embryos for numerical chromosomal abnormalities.
PGT entails doing an early developmental embryo biopsy. Each embryo has a few cells extracted, and the genetic material is examined for anomalies or certain genetic markers. Only the healthy embryos are chosen for transfer to the uterus after genetic examination.
PGT has different success rates based on the woman’s age, the underlying reproductive problems, and the genetic diseases being evaluated. PGT typically improves IVF success rates and increases the likelihood of successful implantation.